Regression

Covariance function:


M is a diagonal matrix and its diagonal elements are characteristic length_scales for each dimension of the examples. In the following table the inverse of the logarithm of the value learned for each input lenght scale, as well as the logarithm of the remaining hyper-parameters are shown.

Inputs and corresponding length scales:

Admission datalength scale Medication datalength scaleLaboratory datalength scale Physiological datalength scale Dynamic datalength scale
Age -1.0757 Isosorbidedinitrate (drip) -0.2553 Calcium ionized pH 7.4 (BGA) count -5.0857 Diastolic arterial blood pressure (variance) -0.7349 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 5 0.3288
Pre-admission creatinine -1.0119 Norepinephrine (drip) 0.0271 Calcium ionized pH 7.4 (BGA) trend -5.0857 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) -0.5020 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 1 0.3436
Day of the week -0.8658 Total number of medications 0.3379 Base excess (BGA) count -5.0857 Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) -0.4607 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 2 0.4641
Pre-admission heart rate -0.8514 Total amount of medications 0.4246 Base excess (BGA) trend -5.0857 Admission hour -0.3847 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 3 0.4862
Hour of admission -0.8052 Blood platelets 0.6027 SaO2 (BGA) -0.3600 Blood loss (chest drain 1) (variance) -0.2230 Admisison hour 0.6219
NYHA Class -0.6498 Milrinone (drip) 0.7042 Serum creatinin 0.1312 Blood loss (chest drain 1) (cumulative) -0.1358 SpO2 (mean) interval 4 0.9336
Gender -0.5508 Dobutamine (drip) 0.7529 Lactate (BGA) 0.2875 Cardiac output (mean) -0.1265 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 5 1.0075
Number of surgeries combined -0.3906 Admission hour 0.9790 Potassium (BGA) 0.2888 FiO2 (mean) 0.0526 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 4 1.1408
Type of surgery (2) -0.3830 Dopamine (drip) 3.6344 Blood glucose (BGA) count 0.3705 Respiratory rate (mechanical ventilation) (mean) 0.1092 ApEn SpO2 1.2597
Type of surgery (1) 1.6466 Midazolam(drip) 4.2999 Lactate (BGA) trend 0.4182 Blood temperature (mean) 0.1425 SpO2 (mean) interval 3 1.2821
Pre-admission FEV1 (%) 2.5420 Albumin 5% 5.1752 PaCO2 (BGA) count 0.5342 Compliance (mean) 0.1684 Heart rate (variance) interval 1 1.2844
Type of surgery (3) 2.5969 Fresh frozen plasma 5.3716 Bicarbonate (BGA) 0.5438 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) 2.2151 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 2 1.4162
Type of surgery (4) 2.7205 Packed cells 6.0316 Calcium ionized (BGA) 0.6002 Peak inspiratory pressure (mean) 2.6043 Blood temperature (mean) interval 4 1.6205
Type of surgery (5) 2.8476 Hydroxyethyl starch 6.0804 PaCO2 (BGA) trend 0.6136 Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) 2.6474 Blood temperature (mean) interval 2 2.0478
Pacemaker mode upon admission 2.9452 Midazolam (bolus) 6.0810 Sodium (BGA) 0.6614 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) 2.6553 Blood temperature (mean) interval 5 2.4146
Pre-admission VC (L) 4.2018 Phenylephrine (bolus) 7.1277 Hemoglobin (BGA) trend 0.7605 Resistance (mean) 3.1137 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 3 2.6728
Endocarditis y/n 4.5502 Cephazolin (bolus) 7.2478 Potassium 0.8369 SpO2 (mean) 4.0214 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 6 2.7096
Redo surgery 4.6399 Propofol 2% (drip) 7.4687 Prothrombin time (seconds) 0.8603 Respiratory rate (mechanical ventilation) (variance) 4.0326 Blood temperature (mean) interval 3 2.7628
Pre-admission FEV1/VC 4.9259 Propofol 1% (drip) 7.8388 Blood glucose (BGA) 0.8882 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) 4.2609 Blood temperature (mean) interval 6 2.8988
Pre-admission VC (%) 4.9663 Glucose (bolus) 8.2619 Sodium (BGA) count 0.9608 Heart rate (variance) 4.6232 SpO2 (mean) interval 5 3.1612
Pre-admission diastolic arterial blood pressure 5.0180 Sodiumbicarbonate 8,4% 8.4550 pH (BGA) 1.0367 Heart rate (mean) 4.9763 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 3 3.1687
Pre-admission SpO2 (21%) 5.1687 Epinephrine (drip) 8.7756 Admission hour 1.0840 Diastolic arterial blood pressure (mean) 5.5772 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 4 3.1808
Pre-admission systolic arterial blood pressure 5.1909 Amiodarone (drip) 8.9064 Calcium ionized (BGA) trend 1.0969 Blood temperature (variance) 5.7896 ApEn systolic arterial blood pressure 3.2736
Pre-admission FEV1 (L) 5.3797 Nicardipine (drip) 8.9191 Potassium (BGA) trend 1.1353 Mean airway pressure (mean) 6.1808 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 2 3.3080
Body mass index 6.3637 Piritramide (bolus) 9.8434 PaO2 (BGA) 1.3969 Respiratory minute volume (variance) 6.4747 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 1 3.3162
Diabetes y/n 9.3246 Vancomycin (bolus) 9.9953 Sodium (BGA) trend 1.4481 Respiratory minute volume (mean) 6.5308 ApEn heart rate 3.5901
Estimated blood loss during surgery 9.7545 Enoximone (drip) 10.3338 Lactate (BGA) count 1.8215 PEEP (mean) 6.5671 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 4 3.7874
Amiodarone (loading dose) 10.9024 pH (BGA) trend 2.1090 Cardiac output (variance) 6.6771 SpO2 (mean) interval 1 4.1149
log(σƒ) 0.4734 Piritramide (drip) 10.9493 Hemoglobin (BGA) count 2.3393 Compliance (variance) 6.7270 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 6 4.2682
log(α) -3.2785 Insulin (drip) 10.9668 Potassium (BGA) count 2.3713 Peak inspiratory pressure (variance) 6.7648 SpO2 (variance) interval 4 4.4599
log(c) 5.7730 Glucose 20% 11.1477 PaO2 (BGA) count 2.6164 Urine output (variance) 6.7807 Heart rate (variance) interval 3 4.6859
log(σn) -5.9961 Furosemide (bolus) 12.0446 Bicarbonate (BGA) count 2.6556 Tidal Volume (measured) (mean) 6.8155 Blood temperature (variance) interval 1 4.9131
log(σƒ) -0.3158 Hemoglobin (BGA) 2.6905 Tidal Volume (set) (variance) 6.8327 Heart rate (mean) interval 1 4.9434
log(α) 10.6994 pH (BGA) count 2.7087 PEEP (variance) 6.8503 SpO2 (variance) interval 6 5.2585
log(c) -0.3559 Calcium ionized (BGA) count 2.7699 FiO2 (variance) 6.8694 SpO2 (variance) interval 2 5.3175
log(σn) -0.2799 PaCO2 (BGA) 2.7993 Mean airway pressure (variance) 6.8881 Heart rate (mean) interval 4 5.3499
Prothrombin time (%) 2.9087 Resistance (variance) 6.9105 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 5 5.5409
PaO2 (BGA) trend 2.9782 Tidal Volume (measured) (variance) 6.9978 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 6 5.9136
Bicarbonate (BGA) trend 3.0790 Tidal Volume (set) (mean) 7.0066 SpO2 (variance) interval 5 6.3804
Blood glucose (BGA) trend 3.1673 Urine output (cumulative) 7.0389 SpO2 (variance) interval 1 6.4125
Hemoglobin (BGA) 3.3528 SpO2 (variance) 7.1226 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 5 6.4694
Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 4 6.4747
log(σƒ) 1.1822 log(σƒ) 0.5071 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 1 6.5058
log(α) -3.7090 log(α) -2.9620 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 6 6.5106
log(c) 2.7372 log(c) 3.8215 Blood temperature (variance) interval 3 6.5472
log(σn) -4.1969 log(σn) -3.3015 SpO2 (mean) interval 6 6.5809
Blood temperature (variance) interval 2 6.5854
Blood temperature (variance) interval 6 6.5896
Heart rate (mean) interval 6 6.6017
Heart rate (mean) interval 3 6.6173
Heart rate (mean) interval 5 6.6436
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 3 6.6473
SpO2 (mean) interval 2 6.6751
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 5 6.7603
Heart rate (variance) interval 6 6.8115
Heart rate (variance) interval 2 6.8142
Heart rate (mean) interval 2 6.8406
Blood temperature (mean) interval 1 6.9505
Blood temperature (variance) interval 4 6.9770
Heart rate (variance) interval 4 6.9886
Heart rate (variance) interval 5 6.9913
SpO2 (variance) interval 3 7.0173
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 1 7.0188
Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 2 7.0340
log(σƒ) 0.4119
log(α) -2.1189
log(c) 6.5923
log(σn) -0.3841

Classification

Covariance function:


M is a diagonal matrix and its diagonal elements are characteristic length_scales for each dimension of the examples. In the following table the inverse of the logarithm of the value learned for each input lenght scale, as well as the logarithm of the remaining hyper-parameters are shown.

Inputs and corresponding length scales:

Admission datalength scale Medication datalength scaleLaboratory datalength scale Physiological datalength scale Dynamic datalength scale
Type of surgery (3) -1.2233 Nicardipine (drip) -4.0000 Lactate (BGA) -0.8894 SpO2 (variance) -0.6821 SpO2 (mean) interval 5 -0.7457
Number of surgeries combined -0.5682 Dopamine (drip) -3.1549 Blood glucose (BGA) -0.7275 Blood temperature (mean) -0.5093 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 4 -0.4638
Pre-admission heart rate -0.5535 Milrinone (drip) -2.1805 Admission hour -0.5233 Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) -0.4326 ApEn systolic arterial blood pressure -0.4281
Age -0.3239 Vancomycin (bolus) -2.0757 Calcium ionized (BGA) -0.4925 Cardiac output (mean) -0.4291 Blood temperature (mean) interval 6 -0.4070
Day of the week -0.1642 Midazolam(drip) -1.7773 Prothrombin time (seconds) -0.4191 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) -0.4021 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 4 -0.2915
Admission hour -0.1403 Isosorbidedinitrate (drip) -1.5952 PaCO2 (BGA) count -0.2954 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) -0.3933 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 2 -0.2708
Type of surgery (1) -0.1260 Amiodarone (drip) -1.5272 pH (BGA) trend -0.2545 Blood loss (chest drain 1) (cumulative) -0.3417 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 5 0.0304
Type of surgery (2) -0.1240 Furosemide (bolus) -1.3675 Lactate (BGA) count 0.3963 Admission hour -0.2259 ApEn SpO2 0.0735
Pre-admission creatinine -0.0314 Epinephrine (drip) -1.3675 Blood glucose (BGA) count 1.2290 Urine output (variance) -0.1977 Heart rate (variance) interval 1 0.1407
Pre-admission diastolic arterial blood pressure 0.1527 Hydroxyethyl starch -1.3595 PaO2 (BGA) count 1.4853 FiO2 (mean) -0.1737 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 2 0.2254
Endocarditis y/n 0.3931 Packed cells -0.4610 Potassium (BGA) count 1.4916 Respiratory rate (mechanical ventilation) (mean) -0.1321 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 3 0.3678
Diabetes y/n 0.4035 Blood platelets -0.3513 Bicarbonate (BGA) count 1.5030 Diastolic arterial blood pressure (mean) 0.0089 SpO2 (mean) interval 4 0.4077
Gender 0.4993 Insulin (drip) -0.3390 Hemoglobin (BGA) count 1.5059 Compliance (mean) 0.0493 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 3 1.0701
Redo surgery 0.7783 Amiodarone (loading dose) -0.2343 pH (BGA) count 1.5398 Heart rate (mean) 0.0812 Blood temperature (mean) interval 5 1.3592
Body mass index 0.9121 Dobutamine (drip) -0.1394 Sodium (BGA) count 1.6311 Blood temperature (variance) 0.2147 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 5 1.3962
NYHA Class 1.0427 Norepinephrine (drip) -0.1222 Calcium ionized (BGA) count 1.6819 Blood loss (chest drain 1) (variance) 0.3736 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 6 1.4566
Type of surgery (4) 1.1499 Fresh frozen plasma 0.0111 Hemoglobin (BGA) 1.7376 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) 0.3880 SpO2 (mean) interval 3 1.5118
Type of surgery (5) 1.1537 Glucose 20% 0.0593 Sodium 1.8966 Peak inspiratory pressure (variance) 0.3938 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (mean) interval 1 1.5981
Pre-admission FEV1 (L) 1.5924 Admission hour 0.0699 Potassium (BGA) 2.1787 Diastolic arterial blood pressure (variance) 1.5540 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 1 1.6198
Pre-admission systolic arterial blood pressure 1.7222 Sodiumbicarbonate 8,4% 0.0726 Bicarbonate (BGA) 2.7458 Peak inspiratory pressure (mean) 1.8030 Blood temperature (mean) interval 4 1.6731
Pacemaker mode upon admission 1.9870 Piritramide (drip) 0.3805 PaCO2 (BGA) 2.7658 Resistance (mean) 1.8626 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 2 1.7072
Pre-admission FEV1 (%) 2.3222 Enoximone (drip) 0.5743 Creatinine 2.9796 Respiratory minute volume (mean) 1.8805 ApEn heart rate 1.7669
Pre-admission SpO2 (21%) 2.3435 Propofol 1% (drip) 0.7298 Sodium (BGA) 2.9917 SpO2 (mean) 1.9307 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 3 1.8319
Pre-admission FEV1/VC 2.3880 Total number of medications 0.7573 Blood glucose (BGA) trend 3.1415 PEEP (variance) 1.9315 Blood temperature (mean) interval 3 1.8496
Pre-admission VC (%) 2.3997 Midazolam (bolus) 0.8021 PaO2 (BGA) trend 3.2793 Respiratory rate (mechanical ventilation) (variance) 1.9697 Blood temperature (mean) interval 2 1.8710
Estimated blood loss during surgery 2.5280 Glucose (bolus) 1.3091 PaO2 (BGA) 3.6558 Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) 1.9741 SpO2 (variance) interval 4 1.9902
Pre-admission VC (L) 3.1881 Phenylephrine (bolus) 2.4320 Calcium ionized pH 7.4 (BGA) trend 3.8476 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) 1.9981 Blood temperature (variance) interval 4 2.0490
Total amount of medications 2.8128 Base excess (BGA) trend 3.8476 Tidal Volume (measured) 2.0357 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 3 2.1325
log(σƒ) 4.3187 Propofol 2% (drip) 2.8255 Calcium ionized pH 7.4 (BGA) count 3.8476 Urine output (cumulative) 2.0540 Blood temperature (variance) interval 1 2.1505
log(α) -3.2162 Albumin 5% 2.8835 Base excess (BGA) count 3.8476 Mean airway pressure (variance) 2.0823 Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 4 2.3207
Cephazolin (bolus) 3.2331 pH (BGA) 4.7535 Heart rate (variance) 2.1001 Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 5 2.3568
Potassium 5.1811 Mean airway pressure (mean) 2.1346 Heart rate (mean) interval 1 2.4243
log(σƒ) 5.2902 SaO2 (BGA) 5.4549 Respiratory minute volume (variance) 2.1374 Heart rate (variance) interval 3 2.5493
log(α) -3.6923 Bicarbonate (BGA) trend 5.9479 Tidal Volume (set) (mean) 2.2062 Blood temperature (variance) interval 5 2.5608
Potassium (BGA) trend 5.9604 Cardiac output (variance) 2.2540 SpO2 (variance) interval 3 2.6662
Hemoglobin (BGA) trend 5.9787 FiO2 (variance) 2.3175 Heart rate (mean) interval 4 2.7268
PaCO2 (BGA) trend 6.0185 PEEP (mean) 2.3185 SpO2 (variance) interval 2 4.2526
Sodium (BGA) trend 6.1660 Tidal Volume (measured) (variance) 2.3195 Heart rate (variance) interval 2 4.3930
Lactate (BGA) trend 6.2742 Resistance (variance) 2.3267 Blood temperature (variance) interval 3 4.7086
Calcium ionized (BGA) trend 6.2969 Tidal Volume (set) (variance) 2.3888 SpO2 (mean) interval 2 4.7220
Hemoglobin 6.4088 Compliance (variance) 2.4515 Blood temperature (variance) interval 2 4.7318
SpO2 (variance) interval 5 4.7487
log(σƒ) 3.2034 log(σƒ) 4.2678 Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 1 4.8021
log(α) -2.2215 log(α) -3.3342 Blood temperature (variance) interval 6 4.8029
SpO2 (mean) interval 6 4.8764
SpO2 (variance) interval 6 4.9400
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 6 4.9665
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 5 4.9741
Heart rate (mean) interval 5 4.9883
Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 4 4.9916
Heart rate (mean) interval 3 4.9998
Heart rate (variance) interval 6 5.0414
Heart rate (mean) interval 2 5.0477
Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 2 5.0896
Heart rate (variance) interval 5 5.1292
Systolic arterial blood pressure (variance) interval 6 5.1403
Blood temperature (mean) interval 1 5.1454
SpO2 (variance) interval 1 5.1485
SpO2 (mean) interval 1 5.1559
Heart rate (mean) interval 6 5.1637
Heart rate (variance) interval 4 5.1872
Systolic arterial blood pressure (mean) interval 6 5.1898
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (variance) interval 1 5.4084
log(σƒ) 3.7411
log(α) -2.7891